Bangladesh is not developed in industry,
it has been enriched in Garment industries in
the recent past years.
In the field of Industrialization garment industry is a promising
step. It has given the opportunity of employment to millions of unemployed, specially
innumerable uneducated women of the country. It is making significant contribution in
the field of our export income.
History of our cloth Industry: Once the cloth of Bangladesh achieved worldwide fame. Muslim and Jamdani cloth or our country were used as the luxurious garments of the
royal figures in Europe and other countries. The British rulers in India didnít develop our
cloth industries at all. Rather they destroyed them and imported cloths from England.
Garment industries at present Bangladesh: After the emergence of Bangladesh radical
change has come to our garment sector. Garment industries started working from the
10's of the late century. At present there are about 3000 garment industries in the
country and 75 percent of them are in Dhaka. The rest are in Chittagong and Khulna.
These Industries have employed fifty lacks of people and 85 percent of them are illiterate
rural women. About 76 percent of our export earning comes from this sector.
Reason of Development: The prime reason why garment industries have come out to be
the champion in the field of export is obviously the cheap labor. Labor is not as cheap
anywhere in the world as it is in Bangladesh. Women contribute to the working force in these garment factories, as they are relatively cheaper than men. A worker works here long hourís free or cheap meals. But this has not prevented thousands of women from work. It has given them a steady income, economic independence, self-reliance and dignity, because they are earning their own living and managing their family expenses.
Garments of Bangladesh in the world-market: Over the last twelve years or so the
garments industries have emerged as the largest source of earning foreign currency. About half of the foreign currency from the ready-made garments is earned from European Union and the U.S.A. Besides, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand; Russia etc. also are other garments importing countries. At present about 20 countries of the world are importers of our garments. Its market is being expanded in the Middle East, Russia, Japan, Australia and many other countries.
Export income of different fiscal years: In 1977-78 fiscal year Bangladesh exported forty
thousand shirts in Germany and earned one million U.S. dollar. At the beginning of the
80's this industry flourished rapidly. In 1983-84 fiscal year the income from garments
rose to 6 crores 50 lacs US dollar. In 1998-99 it became 420 crores U.S. dollar. By
2003-2004 the factories multiplied three times. Simultaneously the export has also
increased. The amount of export income in 2003-2004 increased to 568 crores US dollar.Items of exportable garments: Among the garments of Bangladesh are shirt, pajama,
jeans-pant, jacket, trouser, hats, laboratory coat, sweater, pullover, jumper, jacket,
trousers, gloves, sports dress, nightdress etc.
Problem behind garments: This promising industry has some problems impeding its
development. Bangladesh imports raw materials for garments like cotton, thread colour
etc. This dependence on raw materials hampers the development of garments industry. Moreover, foreign suppliers often supply low quality materials, which result in low quality products. Most of the illiterate women workers employed in garments are unskilled and so their products often become lower in quality. Insufficiency of loan in time, uncertainly of electricity, delay in getting materials, lack of communication, problem in taxes etc. Often obstruct the industry. In the world market 115 to 120 items of dress are in demand where as Bangladesh supplies only ten to twelve items of garments. India, south Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan etc, have made remarkable progress in garments industries. Bangladesh is going to challenge the garments of those countries in the world market.
Garments industries often pay dearly for political unrest, hartal and terrorism etc. The international market has withdrawn quota advantage over garments export form Bangladesh since December 2005.
Bangladesh has to advance cautiously for getting better position of her garments in the world market. Finally destruction of twin tower in 11 September 2001. invasion on Afghanistan and Iraq and depression in world Economy have seriously affected the export trade of Bangladesh.
Things to do: In spite of having a number of problems, prospects of garments industries in Bangladesh with her cheap labour and less capital are fair. In order to hold profitable position for garments in the world market we should keep in mind the following things.
1) production of sufficient raw materials in the country.
2) imparting training to make skilled workers.
3) Reduction of VAT and taxes
4) Assurance of safety, salary and other facilities of the workers
5) More advanced of EPZ
6) Proper advantage of water houses
7) Removal of export problems etc.